Transmission of the car and its mission

На техническом языке коробку передач автомобиля можно охарактеризовать, как один из элементов трансмиссии авто. С ее помощью можно изменять крутящий момент в широком диапазоне. Transmission необходима для изменения скорости автомобиля и его курса движения. Она позволяет авто не только сдвинуться с места, но и двигаться задним ходом.

Car gearbox

Assignment of gear box

Due to the fact that the power characteristics of the internal combustion engine and the electric motor are different (the latter have the best), designers had to invent a device that could change the torque of the internal combustion engine. This device has become a gearbox.

To change the magnitude of the torque in it there are several gears. Each pair has its own gear ratio, which ensures the operation of the vehicle in different situations. If you place an additional (intermediate) gear between a pair of gears, you can change the direction and you will get the car's reverse gear.

The main task of the gearbox is to keep the engine running optimally under any driving conditions, which is achieved by changing the gear ratio. Each gearbox has lower and higher gears.

High torque is used when starting the car from a standstill, at low speeds, when picking up speed and when driving off-road. In these modes of motion used lower gears, they have a large gear ratio. But even with fast engine speeds, transport will move slowly.


To drive at high speeds was uniform, it is necessary to increase the number of revolutions of the wheels. The engine must continue to work optimally. This will help the top gear with a lower gear ratio. Such a transmission will allow a car at high speed to go at normal engine speeds. In this mode, the machine cannot drive slowly or move from its place due to the inability to develop sufficient torque.

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Direct transmission has a gear ratio equal to one. Usually, this is 4th gear. The value of the number less than one is typical for accelerating gears (from 5 and higher). Such a transmission is great under good conditions on the road and saves fuel consumption and engine wear. It is realized when the drive wheels do not require a large plodding force.

Types of PPC

From how the work is implemented in the PPC and the number of steps, they are:

  • stepped. Have a mechanical drive;
  • stepless. The transmission is implemented using mechanical and hydraulic stages. The change in torque in this case is carried out without changing the position of the gas pedal;
  • combined.

Transmission as a whole is directly dependent on the principle of the gearbox. By the way the torque is transmitted to the engine, the boxes are mechanical and hydromechanical. In the first turnovers are achieved with the help of gears. Manual transmissions can be simple and planetary.

Gear box

They are also divided by speed switching:

  • mechanical;
  • automatic.

Механические Gearbox управляются при участии водителя и в свою очередь подразделяются на следующие типы: непосредственного действия, сервоприводы. Первые работают только при воздействии на них водителя. А вторые управляются с помощью водителя и специального сервоустройства. В данном случае большую часть нагрузки берет на себя данной устройство, водителю остается только управлять им.

Ступенчатые коробки передач довольно часто устанавливаются на автомобилях. Количество ступеней зависит от количества валов. Например, часто применяются трехступенчатые коробки. Таким образом, Gearbox классифицируются и по количеству ступеней (передач).

Также можно различать коробки передач по количеству ходов (шестерен). Название таких Gearbox соответствует количеству ходов.

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Типы Gearbox

Four types of gearbox are currently installed on cars. This is a robotic, mechanical, variable speed, automatic gearbox.

The manual box is implemented in the manual box. The advantages of its use are reliable operation, simple design and the possibility of manual control in all modes of movement of the vehicle. Mechanics standing on the VAZ 2109, for example.


The robotic box is an automatic manual transmission in which the clutch shift operation is automated. There are advantages: economical fuel consumption, good dynamic properties during acceleration. In the CVT box transmission is implemented smoothly. This is a stepless box.

Автоматическая коробка передач сочетает в себе механику и автомат. У нее может быть от семи и выше ступеней. Плюсы такой Gearbox – это плавное переключение, надежная работа. И несмотря на более высокий расход топлива и меньшие динамические характеристики при разгоне, такие коробки переключения передач не теряют своей актуальности.