Every detail in the car has its own period of operation. The time of effective use of electrical elements, for example, a battery, is affected by both structural factors and operating conditions.
We will understand how much a car battery serves under average conditions. Also find out how you can positively affect the performance of this appliance.
- 1 Proper operation
- 2 Operational factors
- 2.1 Corrosion
- 2.2 Short Circuit
- 2.3 Deep battery discharge
- 2.4 Over Charge
- 2.5 Other factors of influence
- 3 Extension of battery operation
The most popular models of lead-acid batteries with liquid electrolyte, offered at specialized points of sale, ensure the operation of the car’s electrical system for 3-4 years. In this case, the guaranteed period from the manufacturer is 1-2 years.
More expensive batteries with gel filler serve 2-3 times longer, but their cost is much higher than that of acid-base analogues. They also have other positive qualities.
With regular proper care, acid batteries can last longer, measured out. To do this, you need to control the basic parameters that ensure the performance:
- voltage value (it is possible to check it for each bank separately);
- electrolyte filling level in tanks;
- density indicator for conductive fluid;
- charging state of the whole battery.
When using serviced batteries, almost all the parameters of the car owner is able to bounce back independently. For unattended models there is a limited number of factors affecting the life of a car battery. However, in many situations these levers of influence are enough to increase the resource by 1.5 ... 2 times.
It is customary to isolate negative external factors that should not be allowed with the battery. They can lead to an early failure of the battery for any period of operation.
One of those processes that accompanies the operation of virtually any battery from the date of the invention of this battery. In order to reduce the formation of oxidative processes for metal parts, antimony was used in the construction.
This affected the increase in water consumption. Most additives in modern batteries are used to slow down corrosion processes.See also: diagram of the car charger
If a battery closes, this completely disables it. The additional separation of plates in banks, the use of various separators or envelopes helps to fight the phenomenon.
You need to know that if a new short-circuit often occurs in a new battery, this is a manufacturing defect, and the battery needs to be replaced under the manufacturer's warranty.
Check battery level
Batteries that have a long service life and are subject to a short circuit, indicate a imminent failure. During use, the protective layer naturally breaks off from the surface of the plates, falling to the bottom of the cans. The resulting sludge subsequently significantly reduces the performance of the battery.
Such while riding on a bumpy road, the particles rise in the electrolyte, and are capable of short-circuiting the plates. With the use of modern technologies of applying paste on the plates, the protective effect lasts longer.
Deep battery discharge
This situation will be most relevant for batteries that use calcium in their composition. During deep discharge, small crystals of sulfated lead are formed. This substance does not participate in electrochemical reactions due to its neutral ability to ion formation.
You need to know that sulfate crystals are deposited on the surface of the plates and quickly reduce the area of the working area of the plates during the contact of the particles of lead with the electrolyte.
This behavior adversely affects the performance of the battery, reducing its operational parameters. Also, a significantly discharged battery has a reduced electrolyte density, which contributes to an increase in the freezing point of the liquid, down to -5WITH.
If in the cold the car owner revealed a swollen side of the battery, then with a high degree of probability, freezing of the electrolyte occurred inside one or several cans. It is unlikely to bring the device back to life. This means that in extreme cold it is necessary to move the significantly discharged battery to a warm room. To ensure long-term work, it will be necessary in the winter to control the level of battery charge so as not to miss the moment of possible complete discharge.
You need to know that the minimum voltage level at the terminals of the car battery should not be below 10.5 V.
If necessary, recharging is carried out using an external device.See also: What is the density of the electrolyte should be in the battery: how to check and lift it
This factor is relevant for AGM-batteries with absorbed electrolyte. The process of overcharging is characteristic of faulty electrical systems. This behavior leads to a significant boiling of the electrolyte, "boiling" of the battery. For maintenance-free items there is no possibility of topping up the distillate in banks, which negatively affects the further operation
Other factors of influence
Other factors also affect battery life. For example, an increased number of consumers who continue to use energy even when the engine is off. These include multimedia systems with powerful parameters, several security systems or alarms, climate control, as well as external sources of lighting.
While giving a charge, the battery can be deeply discharged to consumers, and during short journeys the battery does not have time to replenish the supply of energy. The way out of this situation can be the installation of an additional battery in the cabin or engine compartment.
Temperature fluctuations significantly affect battery performance. Negative is obtained both from the increased range of work, and from the lowered temperature range of work. In the heat there is a rapid boiling, and in a frost, with an increase in viscosity, the flow of charge in the electrolyte decreases.
Extension of battery operation
To ensure long and trouble-free battery operation, you must follow some rules.
- Maintain the electrolyte level at a height not lower than 10 ... 15 mm above the upper part of the plates, and, if possible, topping up.
- The density of the electrolyte should correspond to the seasonal value or the climatic zone. The average parameter for the European part of the Russian Federation is 1.27 g / ml.
- Battery support in a charged state will extend the speed of the vehicle's power supply.
- Scrolling the starter during engine start is necessary within 3-5 seconds, as longer intervals will lead to a rapid discharge.
- It is necessary to monitor the quality of the wiring so that it does not create short circuits.
- With a long period of inactivity of the car, it is desirable to open the terminal from the battery, which significantly prolongs its operation.
Simple rules will ensure long operation of the device.