More and more cars with automatic transmissions appear on domestic roads. In European countries, there has already been a significant bias towards transmissions with automatic transmissions. This is due to the improvement of the production technology of such units and the developed network of service centers.
However, if there is already an automatic box on board the car, how to use it correctly? It should be initially at least briefly acquainted with the principle of its work. After all, it has significant features in operation when compared with a mechanical unit.
- 1 Automatic Operation Modes
- 2 Auxiliary Modes
- 3 Operation cars with automatic transmission
- 4 Operation of automatic transmission in winter
- 5 Unwanted actions
Automatic Operation Modes
In contrast to the “mechanics”, in which the driver independently sets the gear ratio in the gearbox, the “automatic” does it without the driver. In this case, the lever serves to select the operating mode, and not the stage.
There are several basic modes that have already become classic. They are selected by switching the range selection lever (WFD). The current operating mode, which is currently on, is indicated on the instrument panel, which allows the driver to quickly obtain information about it. Before you use the automatic transmission, you should familiarize yourself with the modes closer.
«P» - parking. During this RVD position, all controls should be disabled. It is advisable to include such a mode when the vehicle is stopped for a long time. It also begins with the “ignition on”, before starting off for a further trip.
You need to know to turn on the parking, you will need to stop completely and raise the brake lever to the maximum.
“N” is a neutral gear. This mode disables the transmission of torque to the wheels from the power plant. In fact, the engine runs at idle as well as when turning on the "neutral" in cars with manual transmission. It is recommended to use an automatic gearbox in this position for short stops, for example, while waiting at railway crossings or when standing in long traffic jams. During towing for a short distance, experts also recommend setting the lever in this position. Ignition is allowed in this position.
“R” - reverse gear. The position of the RVD near this icon means that when you press the accelerator pedal, the car will go backwards.
You need to know that in the mode of the reverse “R” you can go after the absolute stop of the car, as well as to activate it correctly, you will need to fully squeeze the brake pedal.
«D» - movement. This position of the handle RVD allows the car, after the driver depresses the gas pedal, to move forward. To control the automatic gearbox in this position is not necessary, since all switching between the steps is carried out without human intervention.
В качестве дополнительных удобств по время движения в особых условиях на современных автоматических коробках передач конструкторы предусматривают несколько дополнительных фиксированных положений. Они обычно располагаются после «D» и имеют цифровые индексы от 1 до 3, а также режим «OD». Разберемся, how to drive a car on the machine с такими значками возле РВД.
"Put" - Automatic operation occurs within the first three gears. After braking in this mode, the car speeds up more efficiently than during the application of the classic “D” drive mode. They switch to it in situations where ordinary traffic has to be accompanied by frequent pressing of the brake, for example, when driving on dirt roads or in urban areas with frequent traffic lights and intersections.See also: Where to surrender rights after deprivation
«D2» - “automatic” operates in the interval of two gears. Often this position of the lever creates a comfortable operation when driving at a speed of less than 50 km / h. Drivers are recommended to ride it on forest roads, mountain serpentine, on a snowy road surface when a small speed of movement is required.
"D1" - The transmission is locked in first gear. This option can be used only in the event that the car will not be operated at speeds above 25 km / h.
You need to know that a high speed mode with the lever position on the “D1” is capable of leading the vehicle to a skid.
The “D1” state can be applied in the same cases when downshifts are applied in the manual transmission for engine braking. For the same situation, “D2” is allowed.
"OD" - overdrive. This position of the lever is used for movement on high-speed highways. It blocks the transmission at the highest possible level (fifth or fourth). It is necessary to include this position only when the car reaches speeds above 80-100 km / h. Thanks to it, you can significantly save fuel consumption.
You need to know that switching between these additional modes is allowed while the vehicle is moving.
Modern cars use auxiliary modes for an automatic transmission. Most often, they are switched using an additional rotator on the instrument panel or closer to the high-pressure hoses, which is fixed in one of the specified positions.
“N” is a normal driving mode. Used for normal non-extremal control.
“E” - economy mode. Used for smooth shifting and fuel economy while driving.
“S” - sport mode. While driving in this mode, the automatics use the maximum power characteristics of the vehicle. Thanks to this operation, faster switching between steps is carried out, acceleration is accelerated. Consumable fuel performance significantly increased.
“W” - winter mode Operation in demand during the start on a slippery road. The beginning of the movement occurs usually with the second transmission.
It should also be clarified that the owners of the automatic transmission, who have moved from the “mechanics”, are offered to complete the transmission with the possibility of an independent manual mode of gear shifting. This feature first appeared on Porsche cars and received the designation tiptronic.
Subsequently, this name was picked up by car owners, and it became a household name for all such nodes. For independent switching the lever is transferred to the zone limited by "+" and "-". Steering gears can also be used.
Car operation with automatic transmission
Before starting the movement, squeeze the brake all the way. Next, you need to move the lever from the set "neutral" or "parking" to the zone "Moving Forward" or "Moving Back" and lower the handbrake. The brake is gently released with the right foot, and the car starts to go smoothly. You need to accelerate the car with a smooth pressing of the right foot on the accelerator pedal.See also: On which scooter rights are needed
You need to know that only the right leg is involved in the control of the pedals of a car with automatic transmission, and the left one is in a reserved place for it.
In order for the car to gradually slow down, the driver must slowly raise the foot, returning the pedal to the upper position. During this process, gears will be shifted to lower gearboxes. You can speed up the process by pressing the brake pedal.
It is also possible to start moving again without additional switchings of the handle, only by pressing the gas pedal. It turns out that it is enough to turn on the “D” mode and adjust the speed with both pedals.
Important! When driving a car with automatic transmission, it is necessary to avoid sudden changes in speed, because such operation causes significant wear of the gearbox.
Incorrect use of the “automaton” will unbalance the operation of friction clutches, increasing the distance between the discs. This leads to the fact that the car starts to twitch during the switching of steps.
Operation of automatic transmission in the winter
The most problematic time of operation of the “automaton” is the period with icy and snow-covered road surface. This happens for several reasons:
- slip during the start of movement on slippery surfaces, if the car is stuck;
- subzero temperature adversely affects the work and life of the automatic transmission.
Reduce the negative impact on performance will succeed if you follow some rules.
ATF oil is visually monitored. In the presence of significant darkening or metallic inclusions in a liquid, it is necessary to replace it. When the vehicle’s mileage on one ATF reaches 30 thousand km, it must also be replaced.
During negative temperatures and, especially, open storage of the car, it will be necessary to warm up the engine before driving.
You need to know that the car with automatic transmission goes into operating temperature in 5-8 minutes at an ambient temperature of -20WITH.
Если в авто имеются дополнительные режимы "D1", «D2» или "Put", то движение зимой лучше начинать с "D1", вдавливая педаль на треть или половину хода, а метров через 100 повышать передачи.
In the presence of auxiliary winter modes such as “SNOW”, “*”, “W”, “WINTER”, “HOLD”, it is worth activating them with the help of a predvert or buttons.
A stuck car must be taken out of the snowdrifts on its own using lower modes. If there are none, then you don’t need to abuse the “swing method” for a long time.
Slippery road leads to skidding cars. To maintain the car’s control, the accelerator pedal cannot be released, this applies to front wheel drive cars. To enter the corners, you will need to switch to lower stages in order not to lose speed and power.
Do not overload the car with automatic transmission, if it is not well warmed up. This also applies to the warm season, during the start of the movement it is necessary to observe a moderate speed mode without jerks and sudden drops in speed.
"Automatic" does not like off-road and possible slippage. Also, do not install trailers on cars with automatic transmissions to reduce node wear. It is not advisable to start the car, pushing, when the battery is dead.