The task of the starter in the car is to start the rotation of the crankshaft to start the work of the entire fuel system. Therefore, when the driver, turning the key in the lock, hears only the crackling from under the hood, we have to figure out why the starter does not turn. Although the work of this node is carried out only in the first seconds of starting the engine, but without it, the car will hardly be able to get off the ground.
Primary diagnostics can be carried out independently even without devices. You can very quickly check the starter on the battery. However, a complete analysis of the health of the starter is found only in the presence of measuring devices. When the causes of the breakdown will be understood, it will be possible to determine further actions.
- 1 Fault Diagnosis
- 2 Popular Starter Problems
- 3 Check starter items
- 4 Conclusions
Основная нагрузка в работе стартера ложится на реле. Поэтому когда говорят о том, что стартер не щелкает и не крутит, имеют в виду работу traction relay, которое издает характерные звуки щелчков.
These symptoms occur in such situations:
- the stator or rotor windings are short circuited;
- electric motor roller or sleeve is jammed and does not rotate;
- The "mass" of the rotor touches the positive charge of the stator.
Without removing the case from this appliance, it will not be possible to identify these failures.
The sound that the driver hears is created by the movement of the core between the windings. One of them draws in for fixation, and the second holds the core in position. If the voltage on the holding is insufficient, then it returns to its original position. Therefore, each click most often indicates that the core made an unsuccessful attempt to fix. It is in such a situation that the retracting starter relay clicks, the starter does not twist, it is not possible to move off.
You need to know that if the car starter does not start the first time, then this does not mean its breakdown, perhaps not all systems are “warmed up” fully. It is necessary to try to turn the key in the ignition again.
Problems other than traction relays can arise either due to burnt contacts, which can be attributed to the characteristic odor, or from poor-quality wiring connections to the “mass” or a discharged battery. "Treatment" in each case is provided individually.See also: Repair of turbocharging on their own
Popular problems with the starter
The main problems, as practice shows, lie not in mechanical failures, but in electrical ones.
- If the car does not start, then the first is controlled battery. The starter is powered only by this electrical device. When the battery does not give a predetermined voltage, then you can not even hear clicks. If there is a tester in the car, the battery charge is monitored. Replace the multimeter in this case can simply turn on the headlights, for their brightness experienced driver will understand the approximate degree of charge of the battery. Especially if the brightness is noticeably reduced when the headlamps are turned on and the ignition is turned on, then the battery will be to a greater extent. You can rotate the contact wires at the terminals of the battery to slightly scratch the oxide film if problems arise from weak voltage.
- Being monitored traction relay. In addition to the direct breakdown of this element there may be a fault with the control cable. The element can be tested using a direct connection from the “positive” battery terminal to the starter terminal; a cable with a smaller diameter is attached to it by default. The operating status of such a connection will show that the “weak link” is to be searched in other areas, for example, in relays, contacts of the ignition lock or supply cables.
- Weak contact on connections does not ensure the passage of sufficient current through the electrical circuit, so it is necessary to check all the mates, especially on the power cable. For the smooth operation of the starter, a current of about 200A is required. Smaller values will only allow the start-up winding, which causes clicks, but the engine will not start anyway.
Check starter items
After the external control of the inoperative units, you can dismantle the starter and check the operation of individual starter elements.
Starter VAZ 2106
- To notice the wear of the brush assembly, you can only open the case. If the car has been used for a long time and intensively, then the development of graphite brushes will be obvious, although their factory resource allows you to work without a failure for a long period. It is necessary to take into account the peculiarities of some designs of starters in which the wear of the brush assembly blocks the operation of the retractor relay. No clicking sounds will be heard.
- Burnt windings will be visible inside not only externally, but also by their characteristic odor. This element is not subjected to repair or replacement, it is necessary to replace the starter entirely.
- You can conduct a stress test with a relay on an open case. Inside it there are three contact terminals: the input from the battery, the output to the starter and a small control terminal. With a screwdriver with a well-insulated handle, you can try to connect the contacts of two large terminals, while not touching the case elements. Started rotation will indicate that the problem is in the relay. The consequences of this test are often burnt relay contacts. You shouldn’t clean them, because together with the soot remove the protective layer of deposition of precious metals. For a long time after that, such a relay will not work. The best solution would be to replace this item.
It is also worth checking the voltage in the ignition lock. Sometimes wires from this knot are moving away or oxidized. Solve the issue can be soldering or replacing.
Решения большинства выявленных проблем достаточно очевидны. Для устранения проблем с batteryной батареей достаточно будет ее зарядить. Также надо будет зачистить места контактов сопрягающихся кабелей, особенно это касается минусовой «массы», подключаемой к корпусу. Заметные проблемные точки, в которых возможны замыкания, требуется изолировать. Явные конструкционные проблемы с отдельными узлами обычно дешевле обходятся полной заменой стартера, чем ремонтом некоторых элементов.