Already at the planning stage of the purchase, a number of questions arise before the future car owner. In order to answer them, you can use the advice of friends and acquaintances. But how many people, so many opinions. And the question about what kind of gearbox is better able to embroil even relatives. It is better to make a little effort and clarify this issue. And we will help you with this.
So, the gearbox. This is one of the most important units of the car. Its task is to provide both frequency and torque transmission directly from the vehicle engine to its driving wheels. Thanks to the gearbox, the car can drive in reverse, and it also becomes possible to coasting (that is, by inertia). From the choice of gearbox will depend on driving comfort, efficiency, maintainability cars.
Gearbox - one of the most important units of the car
Таким образом, автолюбителю придётся выбирать между четырьмя типами трансмиссий. А именно: механической, роботизированной, вариаторной и автоматической. Рассмотрим каждую из них поподробнее.Читать далее о том, какая коробка передач лучше-->
This is the most traditional and time-tested option. Between the box and the engine is clutch. Squeeze the pedal, completely disconnect the transmission from the engine. At this point, you need to evaluate all the conditions of the movement and on the basis of them select the desired transmission. This is a plus, for which the “mechanics” are so fond of experienced drivers. After all, only she gives full control over the machine. Your "iron horse" with such a box can be freely towed at any distance. Start with the pusher - please. Move out of the mud in the "buildup" - no problem. The cost of servicing a manual transmission is the lowest among other transmissions. Yes, and it weighs a little, which has a positive effect on the total mass of the car.
"Mechanics" simply arranged. So, it will be not so difficult and expensive to repair it in case of anything, like, for example, automation or a CVT. High efficiency ensures low consumption of gasoline (diesel fuel).
There are disadvantages. In principle, a car with manual transmission is less convenient to operate in a modern large city. Endless traffic jams, traffic lights. At each you need to squeeze the clutch pedal, shift the gear, gently move. It is tiring, but for beginners it is also difficult.
Summarize. The advantages of a manual transmission:
- small weight;
- favorable cost;
- it is simply arranged (and therefore high maintainability);
- moderate "appetite";
- gives full control over the car;
- possibility of free towing;
- the possibility of "swinging".
But its shortcomings:
- inconvenient in the conditions of the city;
- Beginners may have problems with smooth shifting.
Video on how the manual transmission works:
Variable speed drive
This transmission appeared as a reaction to an increase in thrust to comfort and an increase in the cost of fuel. The belt rotates between the drive and driven pulleys. It is a multi-link chain or a set of metal plates. That is, the basis of the CVT transmission is V-belt transmission.
Variable speed gearbox
We continue. The diameter of one of the pulleys can vary. This command is given by the electronic control unit after analyzing all the movement factors. Thus, the change in gear ratio is constantly. There are no steps (speeds) as such. No wonder the variator is called the continuously variable transmission.
Практическим результатом применения вариатора стала абсолютная плавность движения. Ведь если нет ступеней, значит нет и рывков при их переключении. Таким образом, для тех, кто считает комфорт главным критерием, вопрос о том, какая коробка лучше, однозначно будет решён в пользу вариатора. Двигатель всегда работает в оптимальном режиме, что самым положительным образом сказывается на его долговечности. Variable speed gearbox обеспечивает экономичность авто.
As usual, there are downsides. The complexity of the device: in itself, the variator is quite simple, but you have to put the torque converter, otherwise the car simply will not move. And this is the price and costly repairs. Fear of overheating. He likes a smooth ride, that is, there are no speakers so beloved by many. This type of transmission is not put on cars with a powerful engine - they do not withstand belts.
- smooth movement;
- ensures optimum engine performance;
- simplicity of the device;
- fast work (there is no loss of time to shift gears).
- high price;
- expensive repairs;
- the need for additional devices;
- fear of overheating;
- the inability to install on powerful cars;
- less dynamics than the "mechanics".
Video on how the variator works:
The peculiarity of this checkpoint is that, in fact, it is mechanical, but the transmission itself is switched by the robot. As for convenience, it is similar to the classic automaton, but due to the design features, the flow of power is interrupted during switching - there will be dips during acceleration.
"Robot" in weight is less than a machine, and it is cheaper. There is a manual mode. As a rule, such boxes are placed on budget models. Switching between speeds takes a couple of seconds.
- ease of management (according to the sensations of the machine);
- small weight;
- democratic value.
- jerks, that is, with the smoothness of the work problems;
- delays in switching between gears;
- when you stop you need to go to neutral.
For the sake of fairness, we mention proselective robotic boxes. Car Discounts for new cars! Profitable loan from 9.9% installments 0% adom.ru with a box of this type has two clutches, separately for even gears, separately for odd ones. Thus, jerks are excluded, acceleration goes smoothly. The cost was the complexity of the design (and therefore its high cost), costly repairs. Preselective gearbox put on premium cars.
What is the classic machine for? In order for the driver less tired when driving in city traffic. On the “mechanics”, you know how: squeezed the clutch, shifted the gear, smoothly released the clutch, while simultaneously pressing the gas pedal. How many movements! And they will be repeated at every traffic light, at every traffic jam. Whether business machine. Put the selector in the "drive" and you can not worry about anything. Torque is transmitted through transmission oil. And for the gear shift is responsible smart electronics. However, the speed can be switched manually. For complete happiness, there are a variety of modes (economical, sports, and so on), which further simplifies the work of the driver.
But, as usual, there is no barrel of honey without a "fly in the ointment." First of all, the automatic transmission is expensive. Due to power losses in the torque converter increased fuel consumption. Noticeable delays when shifting gears. A car with a gun can not, as we usually do, in emergency cases, start "with a pusher." Tow such a vehicle can only be a short distance.
Summarize what has been said. The advantages of the automatic gearbox:
- convenient driving (no need to choose a gear - the box will do everything itself);
- the driver is not distracted from the road;
- the engine is experiencing less stress.
But the disadvantages:
- increased fuel consumption;
- the high cost of both the automatic transmission itself and its repair;
- expensive service;
- gear shift delays;
- can only start with a starter;
- towing difficulties.
Video on how automatic transmissions work:
So which gearbox to choose? There is no definite answer. All presented types of transmissions have both advantages and disadvantages. So the choice will depend only on your personal preferences. Want dynamics and full control over the car? Your choice of mechanic or "robot". Lovers of comfort better suited machine or CVT. Fortunately, any options are now available.