How the starter works: device and principle of operation

In all cars with an internal combustion engine, there is such a detail as a starter. With it, it is possible to start the engine at the initial stage. Rather simple device of a starter provides its work as clear as possible.


  • 1 Starter design
  • 2 Node device
  • 3 How does the starter

Starter design

The item is a small four-band electric motor. It provides the initial rotation of the crankshaft to set the necessary revs for the engine. In most cases, for the operation of the node enough power in 3 ... 4 kW. The electric motor consumes a constant voltage, powered by a car battery. Make-up occurs through several brushes.

what is the principle of the starter

It is customary to distinguish two types of devices:

  1. With integrated gearbox. Большинство специалистов рекомендует применять именно этот вид, так how does the starter work такой со сниженной потребностью тока, при большей эффективности. Данная конструкция запускает вращение коленчатого вала даже при сниженном заряде аккумуляторной батареи. Присутствие магнитов постоянного действия позволяет свести возможные проблемы с обмоткой к минимуму. Однако, во время долгого прокручивания появляется риск выхода из строя ведущей шестеренки. Это случается в большинстве случаев по причине производственного брака.
  2. Without gear. The absence of an intermediate node in the form of a gearbox ensures the transfer of rotation directly from the starter to the crankshaft. The principle of operation of the starter of this design is similar to the previous one, but due to the simplicity of its configuration, it has an increased maintainability. It should be noted that in such a design, at the time when the voltage is applied to the nodes, the gears instantaneously clutch, which leads to faster ignition. Such starters have greater endurance, while their failure occurs less frequently than gear units. The negative old is poor performance at low temperatures.

what device starter

One of the progressive innovations of the design is the presence of James planetary gear. It provides the start of passenger gasoline power plants up to 4.5 ... 5.0 l, diesel engines up to 1.8 ... 2.0 l, as well as small modern trucks. In this case, the total mass of the node is reduced in some models to 40%.

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Node device

For repairs, proper operation of the electrical system and ensuring the long-term operation of the vehicle components, it is necessary to know the device of the starter retractor relay and the rest of its elements.

which device is a starter retractor

  • Housing in most cases it is made in the form of a cylinder, includes excitation windings, as well as a core.
  • Anchor It is made from high-alloyed steel alloy, has the shape of a shaft with ground grinding surfaces for bearings On the central part of it, a core with collector plates is pressed.
  • Retractor relay transmits voltage to the motor winding. It also provides pushing overrunning clutch. In the design of the relay there is a movable jumper and several power contacts.
  • Overrunning clutch with drive gear. Often, more experienced motorists call this site "bendix." With the help of this roller mechanism, the torque is transmitted to the flywheel, and after starting, the gears are removed from the gearing to ensure the durability of the unit.
  • Brush knot carries voltage to the anchor plates. With its help, it is possible to increase the power of the starter during the execution of the main working cycle.

what is the principle of the starter

Most designs have a similar classic layout.

As a difference, other automatic mechanisms for removing gears can be used. Also on machines with a “automatic” box, the assembly is completed with additional holding windings. They are used to restrain the start in the case when the lever is included in one of the running positions ("D", "+", "-" or "R").

How does the starter work

Based on the fact that the node is an electromechanical device, the principle of operation of the starter is based on this.

He converts the consumed electrical energy from the battery into mechanical rotation.

how does the starter work

During work, the following processes are carried out:

  • When the key is turned in the ignition lock, electrical contacts are connected. At this time, the voltage is applied to the starter relay to the pull-in winding of the traction relay.
  • Anchor перемешается вдоль своей оси по корпусу дает возможность выходу бендикса, чтобы обеспечить зацепление ведущей шестерни с ведомой, расположенной на маховике коленвала.
  • When the armature reaches its extreme position, the contacts are closed, and now the voltage provides the holding winding of the relay with the starter winding.
  • When the starter shaft rotates, the vehicle’s propulsion system starts. To achieve the speed of rotation of the flywheel of the speed of rotation of the starter, the Bendix disassociates from the driven gear. This helps return spring.
  • Simultaneously with disengagement, the key of the ignition lock moves to the initial position, and the current supply to the starter stops.
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It is not worth holding the key for a long time in the extreme position (more than 5 ... 6 seconds), so as not to discharge the battery or cause the pinion gear to deteriorate significantly.