Gasoline engines cannot operate without external sources of ignition of the fuel mixture. Their function in all modern cars perform automotive candles. Many factors influence which spark plugs are better suited for specific operating conditions.
Manufacturers strive to meet the demand from automakers for the provision of diverse products. As a result, even specimens using precious metals in their designs appear on the market.
- 1 Parameters of car candles
- 2 Variety of spark plugs
- 3 Applied metals
- 4 Selection of candles by brands and manufacturers
- 4.1 BOSCH
- 4.2 NGK
- 4.3 BRISK
- 4.4 DENSO
Parameters of car candles
The only role that is given to the spark plugs is to create the spark of the necessary power at the right time to ignite the fuel mixture in the combustion chamber. The formation of an electric arc is provided by high voltage applied to the built-in electrodes.
The central rod is in contact with the positive charge, and a negative charge passes through the side. In a given position of the crankshaft, current is applied to the contacts that respond with a spark.
Even the best spark plugs fail sooner or later, as their work occurs in an aggressive environment at high temperatures, with combustible gases. The average lifespan of candles is usually limited to 20-30 thousand kilometers. However, the driver may notice some difficulties in operation even at half of this period.
Indirect signs that indicate problems with candles include:
- noticeable loss of vehicle power;
- increased gas mileage during operation;
- when working at idle, the vibration of the motor becomes noticeable;
- the risk of failure of the ignition coil or catalyst increases significantly.
In such situations, it is necessary to diagnose the operation of the gas distribution mechanism, as well as the replacement of the failed elements.
Перед тем, how to choose car spark plugs, необходимо знать базовые параметры подбора. К ним относится калильное число и габаритный размер.
- The heat of the number. This parameter is associated with thermal modes of operation. A higher value indicates that the igniter can be operated in areas with high temperatures. Especially it concerns the forced motors or cars of sports type. When you install there candles with a low value, they will soon burn out. For “cold” candles, numbers above 20 are used, for medium ones, the preferred range of values is 17 ... 19, for hot candles - 11 ... 14.
- Overall Size. Most candles have different parameters for connecting to the combustion chamber. If the external thread does not coincide with the one that is cut in the body, then you should not use force. It is also important that the length of the candle does not exceed the required rate, since it will collide with the upper edge of the piston, which will lead to a serious breakdown of the crank-connecting rod mechanism.
You need to know that when choosing a spark plug for their glowing number and overall parameters, it is necessary to take into account the recommendations of automakers.
Variety of spark plugs
The design of the spark plugs during their release has undergone various transformations. Modern car users are offered various production options:
- with two electrodes;
- with several electrodes;
- flare design;
- plasma-torch design.
The variant with a pair of electrodes is most common for these products. It is used on most cars. A spark arises between the central mounted electrode and its side pair, igniting a mixture of gasoline and air.
As a modification of this design, technological grooves on the inside of the electrode in the form of letters V or U. This solution provides a larger size of the flame, which allows the engine to work more idling.
Another type of two-electrode design has a slightly elongated central electrode. In some models of combustion chambers, this feature improves sparking.
In multi-electrode spark plugs, one central electrode is used, and two or more side electrodes surround it. Due to the many points of sparking provides greater stability of the process. Such a layout, in contrast to a monoelectrode, extends the service life of not only the motor, but also the spark plugs themselves.
For torch and plasma igniters, manufacturers have not provided for side-electrodes in the classic version. The spark is formed by a conical resonator. Fuel ignites fairly stable and evenly. This design is considered one of the best according to manufacturers. However, the practice of using them does not always confirm this thesis.
Differentiation between car candles also occurs according to the amount of metals used for the manufacture of electrodes. There are such types:
- monometallic, one metal is used in the construction of electrodes;
- bimetallic, electrodes are made of different metals or alloys.
In the first case, the basis is copper, имеющая хорошие токопроводящие свойства. Для второго варианта производитель использует в опорной зоне copper, а для рабочих зон применяются более дорогие металлы с повышенными характеристиками: иридий, серебро, золото, платина и д.р.
Candles with copper electrodes are the cheapest for consumers, and serve on average 25-30 thousand kilometers. For motorists who do not often use the car, their resource lasts for several years.See also: DIY car battery maintenance
Gold or platinum electrodes extend the life of the product as a whole. In accordance with the parameters of manufacture and operation, these candles work out about 50 thousand km without complaints. This design to a lesser extent creates carbon on the work items, revealing a resource.
Иридий on the electrodes increases mileage to 100 km. It provides near-perfect sparking in the engine cylinder. The disadvantage is the high cost of the product.
Selection of candles by brands and manufacturers
World leaders in the production of candles conquer the market by improving the quality of products, as well as through the introduction of innovations. It’s not so easy to choose the fuel mixture igniters for your car. It is necessary to test products in practice, based on their performance characteristics.
One of the leaders in this industry is the German concern BOSCH. Conducting research in our own laboratories, the company's engineers achieve the maximum results from their own products. Such successes ensured that the candles of the company were installed on cars produced in many countries from the conveyor. These include:
Products are manufactured in certain series: BOSCH Super, Super Plus, Super Plus 4 and others. Electrodes are reliably protected from operational corrosion, behave steadily during sparking. Most models, for example, Super Plus 4 has a coating of working zones with noble metals.
Domestic motorists celebrate the high quality of candles from the company NGK Spark Plug. One of the leaders of sales provides the market for 450 million dollars with its goods. NGK as well as BOSCH is a supplier of products for auto giants:
One of the advantages of the product is high-quality ceramics used for reliable insulation. She with dignity maintains stable work in aggressive conditions of elevated temperatures.
The Czech manufacturer provides motorists with not only Eastern European quality spare parts, but is also known outside the continent. His candles are installed on cars SKODA and VOLVO.
Products are manufactured in certain series, such as Brisk Exstra, Brisk Premium, Silver and others. Due to the processing of the case by electroplating, the product life is significantly increased.
Products from the Japanese company DENSO is also known to domestic motorists. All products comply with the most stringent requirements established by ISO 9000 and QS 9000 certificates.
Electrodes use special grooves in the form of U, which provides fuel savings. Also produced high-quality candles with platinum or iridium spray.