In some countries, a driver's license, in addition to his direct appointment, is a substitute for other identity documents, such as a passport. The plans of such an application of rights in Russia. However, now the document lists only the categories of driver's licenses that allow the management of a certain type of transport.
The management of any mode of transport regulated in the Road Traffic Regulations should be carried out only if there is an appropriate supporting document. In the absence of a certificate, the driver will be fined in accordance with the current grid from 5 to 30 thousand rubles.
- 1 What are the new rights
- 2 Interpretation of signs on the driver's license
- 3 Actual categories in rights
- 4 Getting a driver's license of any category
- 5 Age of obtaining a driver's license
What are the new rights
After the introduction of new categories in the driver's license, the appearance of the document has also changed. In addition, the decoding of all categories of driver's licenses of the new sample is indicated on the plastic in the form of schematic icons, also the deadline for each of these categories is indicated for the owner.
In the new rights is such information:
- the name of the document on the front side;
- surname, name and patronymic of the holder of the document;
- dates of receipt and expiration of rights;
- place and date of birth;
- the name of the authority that issued the document;
- photo and signature of the owner;
- list of transport categories and marks of admission to these categories of the owner of the certificate;
- encoded information to read with a scanner.
Entries made letters of the Russian alphabet. Also, the information is duplicated in Latin so that you can use the document abroad. Categories and subcategories of transport are indicated only in Latin and Arabic numerals.
Interpretation of signs on the driver's license
In addition to the title of the document on the front side there is a designation of the country that issued it (RUS). On the left side there is a 3x4 cm color photo of the owner. The photograph should not have a headdress or other objects that distort perception. Relief is allowed when covering the head of believers, with preservation of the appearance of the oval face. Also, drivers with poor eyesight in the photo may have glasses with non-tinted lenses. As confirmation of receipt of the certificate, the driver puts his signature on the document.
The name, surname and signature of the owner are printed in capital ("large") letters of the Russian alphabet. Under each Russian word, the text is also duplicated by capital Latin characters. This rule applies to the place of birth.
Front side driver's license
Since rights are granted for a limited period (10 years), then in lines 4 a) and 4 b) there is an interval of time during which the document is valid. After the end of its action it is necessary to extend it. Expired rights cannot be enjoyed. Paragraph 4c) indicates the place of issue of the document.
In the fifth paragraph are the series and ID number. This data is duplicated on the back side of the rights below.
The last but one line indicates the region of residence of the driver, and below it are the codes of the categories and subcategories allowed to be managed.
On the back side of the left side there is a barcode with additional information about the driver. To read it you will need a scanner.
The main area of the back side is the table. About what the categories in the new rights mean, we will tell further. The first column shows the markings of categories / subcategories and the corresponding icons with the image of transport. In the second column (column 10) is the period from which the driver is allowed to control the selected category of transport. The third column (column 11) indicates the expiration date of the rights. Additions can be made in the last column (column 12), for example, if the driver can only drive a car with an automatic transmission (AT).
In column 14, located under the table, there may be general information relating to all categories, for example, the driving experience is indicated.
Back side of driver's license
Current categories in rights
After 2014, when changes in the rules of the road came into effect, many drivers had a question about which cars could be driven with category B, because besides the old designation, a subcategory B1 appeared. In addition to this, other subcategories and categories of vehicles were added to the list. In total, 16 types of vehicles were allocated for cars and trucks, excluding special vehicles.See also: How to pass driving around the city without errors
"BUT" - with this category open, drivers are allowed to drive motorcycles (two-wheeled vehicles (TS) with or without a side trailer). Vehicles with three or four wheels and a total weight of up to 0.4 tons are allowed in this category.
«A1» - holders of this category receive more limited rights than in the previous paragraph. The vehicle must have an engine size of 50-125 cm3 and a maximum of 11 kW of power. In fact, A1 gets modern “scooters”. If drivers have older category A rights, the new A1 subcategory opens automatically.
Current categories of rights
«B» - this mark in the rights gives the opportunity to drive a passenger car with a weight of up to 3.5 tons and a restriction on seats in the cabin up to 8 units, excluding the driver's seat. An additional right is to attach a trailer more than 0.750 tons to such a vehicle, but the mass of the trailer should not be more than the vehicle mass, and the total weight of the pair is limited to 3.5 tons. The trailer, according to the current traffic rules, is called a vehicle that is not equipped with a power plant.
«B1» - such a point in the driver's license permits driving a car on three or four wheels, and the empty vehicle mass is limited to 0.550 tons. In such a car, the manufacturer must set a speed limiter at 50 km / h. Also the volume of the motor should not be more than 50 cm3. The data of the driver are not taken into account for the mass calculation and the battery is not taken into account in the vehicle on the electric traction. However, the total weight includes a full tank of fuel and other lubricants and coolants. The presence of this category allows the holder to drive a tricycle or quadricycle. In this case, the last vehicle has a significant difference with the quadrocycle, in which the motorized landing in the seat and control is carried out by a steering wheel similar to a motorcycle one.
«BE» - allows driving by the car described in category “B”, but in this case the mass of the trailer is allowed to do more than 0.750 tons, although the total weight of this design is also limited to 3.5 tons
"WITH" - about which cars you can drive with category C, says the new traffic rules. These cars include trucks with a mass of only more than 3.5 tons and the possibility of additional coupling with trailers more than 0.750 tons. The restriction on the carriage of passengers is 8 people without driver.
«С1» - a mark on this category gives the driver the right to drive a car with a mass of 3.5-7.5 tons and implement a coupling with a trailer up to 0.750 tons. The category also does not exercise any additional privileges on passengers.
"C1E" - a driver with this category can move 3.5-7.5 tons by car with a trailer over 0.750 tons, but the total mass of such rolling stock is limited to 12 tons
Legal categories of transport in Russia
«D» - such an authorized point in the driver's license allows you to control a vehicle in which there are more than 8 passengers. Practically all large buses fall under this category. According to the rules of this category, trailers with a mass of less than 0.750 tons can also be attached to them.See also: How to start the car in the cold
"D1" - subcategory trimmed in the permitted number of passengers in the cabin. The number of equipped seats in the cabin should allow to carry from 8 to 16 "sedentary" passengers. A trailer of up to 0.750 tons is allowed. With the “D” open, the “D1” is opened automatically.
"OF" - for drivers with such a category, it is possible to hook up a trailer with a mass from 0.750 tons to 3.5 tons to the bus described in paragraph “D”. Also, “accordion” buses having a joint fall into this description.
«D1E» – при таком обозначении прицеп автобуса может быть более 0,750 т, но установлено общее ограничение на массу состава в 12 т. В прицепе во время движения не должны находиться люди. При открытии "OF", подкатегория «D1E» присваивается автоматически.
Working categories and subcategories of rights
«E» - the position is excluded from the modern rules, and its functions are redistributed among the main categories as additions.
«M» - The mark in the rights gives the opportunity to legally drive mopeds and light quadricycles. Often it opens in parallel when opening any other category.
«Tm», «Tb» - with such positions in the modern driver's license you can drive trams and trolley buses. These items are pumped from special marks in the full category.
Getting a driver's license of any category
To get the right to drive a vehicle in Russia is possible only after training in a driving school and passing exams successfully. They consist of theoretical and practical parts.
To enroll, it is enough to hand over documents, pay for courses, and then complete and sign an agreement. Mandatory document to start training - medical certificate form 083 / y-89. The document is a form of strict accountability, so no replacement for it will be possible.
After completing the training, you must pass three mandatory exams. The first is the verification of theoretical knowledge, the second is the practice at the test site, the third is the practice in urban environments. It is in this sequence that the change is carried out.
In the theoretical part, the exam is held on a computer, where in 20 minutes you need to answer 20 questions correctly. The result is successful with no more than two errors. If there are three or more wrong answers the student to the practical part is not allowed.
On the covered area reserved for the examinations, it is necessary to properly start, stop, drive backwards, and also between the thumbs, without hitting them and not knocking them down. After a successful check in, you can go with an instructor to the city conditions. There the student should not receive more than 5 penalty points.
To repeat the theoretical part, the applicant can be given 7 days. He may also receive a refusal in writing, which, according to the procedure, is appealed to the judicial authorities.
If all the requirements for the exams are met successfully, then you can pay the state duty and take photos for a certificate in the traffic police. Half an hour after the photo is given a driver's license. They are limited to a period of 10 years.
Age of obtaining a driver's license
Motorcycles and scooters that fall under the categories “A1” and “M” can be managed with rights from 16 years of age. For categories "A", "B", "C" and the subcategories "B1" and "C1", a achievement of 18 years is required. A concession for “B” is the opportunity to study at the age of 17, but you can get a certificate only at the age of 18.
Для «D», "D1", «Tm», «Tb» учеба разрешена только после 21 года, а все, что имеет приставку «Е» можно получить после управления основной категорией в течение 12 месяцев. Активацию "C1E" и «D1E» можно провести после открытых "WITH" и «D» или «С1» и "D1".